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RAF Fixed and Free-mounted Reflector Gunsights 翻译中

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发表于 2019-12-2 12:10:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 FEIFANXIE 于 2019-12-4 23:10 编辑

RAF Fixed and Free-mounted Reflector Gunsights——"British Aircraft Armament Vol.2: Guns and Gunsights", by R Wallace Clarke

The Reflector Sight

In 1900, the noted scientist and optical instrument designer, Sir Howard Grubb (1844-1931), filed Patent No.12108 for 'Improvements for sighting devices for guns'. In the following year the Royal Dublin Society published a paper by Sir Howard entitled 'A New Collimating Telescopic Gunsight for Large or Small Ordnance'.
The basic principle of the reflector sight is as follows:
In the base of an upright tubular housing there is a light source. This is directed through an opaque glass plate on which is etched an aiming mark, or graticule. The image of the graticule is projected through the focal plane of a collimated lens, and reflected onto a glass screen mounted 45 degrees to the gunner's eye. This presents an aiming mark, usually a ring with a central dot on the reflector screen, giving the gunner a clear view of the target with the graticule pattern superimposed on it.
Sir Howard's first design used natural light reflected by mirrors, but after trials these were replaced by an electric bulb (such illumination was mentioned in the original patent). He approached various arms producers, including Vickers, but although they were impressed with the performance of the sight, no orders came. Ironically, this first sight was invented before the Wright brothers left the ground.
In 1915, Vickers decided to develop a reflector sight with Sir Howard as consultant. Although a patent was applied for stating that the sight would be useful against aircraft, no mention was made of possible aircraft use.
The Oigee sight

The first record of a reflector sight, being used on aircraft was in Germany, where in 1918 the optical firm of Optische Antal Oigee of Berlin, working from the Grubb patents, produced two reflector sights for aircraft. One of these was fitted with a sun screen, and could be used by day and night. A smaller version was meant for night use only. A small electric bulb was used as a light source, the reflector being an elliptical glass screen. The sight could be harmonised with the gun by means of a screw and clamp.

Several of the larger version were issued to Jasta 12 in 1918, when they were fitted to Fokker Dr.1 aircraft for operational trials. Others were tested on Albatros D.Va aircraft. In 1920 the US Military Attache in Germany was given a demonstration of the sight. He was so impressed that he sent an example to the US Army Engineering Division at McCook Field, but no official interest was shown.
反射瞄准具
在1900年,著名的科学家和光学仪器设计师霍华德·格鲁布爵士(Sir Howard Grubb,1844-1931年)申请了专利号为12108的专利:“枪支瞄准装置的改进”次年,皇家都柏林学会发表了霍华德爵士的论文,题为“针对大型或小型兵器的新型准直望远瞄准镜”。
反射式瞄准镜的基本原理如下:
在直立的管状外壳的底部有一个光源。 它被引导通过不透明的玻璃板,在该玻璃板上蚀刻有瞄准标记或标线。 刻度线的图像通过准直透镜的焦平面投影,并反射到与炮手的眼睛成45度角的玻璃屏幕上。这会提供一个瞄准标记,通常是一个在反射镜屏幕上带有中心点的环,给射击者一个目标和瞄准标记重叠的清晰影像。
霍华德爵士的第一个设计使用了镜子反射的自然光,但经过试验,这些自然光被电灯泡取代(原始专利中提到了这种照明)。 他与包括维克斯(Vickers)在内的各种武器生产商进行了接触,但是尽管他们对瞄准具的表现印象深刻,却没有获得任何订单。讽刺的是,在莱特兄弟离开地面之前第一个(航空)瞄准镜就已经发明出来了
到了1915年,维克斯公司决定请霍华德(Howard)先生做顾问来开发一种反射瞄准具。虽然专利申请的说明中没有指出对付飞机方面有用,但这不妨碍为飞机开发一种类似的瞄准具。
Oigee瞄准具
第一个有记录的使用航空反射式瞄准具的国家是德国,1918年由柏林的Optische Antal Oigee 光学公司制造。瞄准具使用了Grubb的专利,有两个版本,一种装有遮光屏,可以同时适用于白天和夜间。较小的版本只能在夜间使用。一个小电灯泡作为光源,反射器是个椭圆形的玻璃屏。瞄准具可以通过螺丝和夹具来进行校准。
1918年,当这些瞄准镜装Fokker Dr.1飞机上进行测试的同时,又为Jasta 12型飞机开发了几种更大的版本。另外还有一些则在Albatros D.Va飞机上进行测试。美驻德陆军武官于1920年得到了一个瞄准镜的原型。他是如此的印象深刻,所以他把一个样品送到位于McCook Field的美国陆军工程部,但是官方对此没有显示出兴趣。

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发表于 2019-12-4 20:25:45 | 显示全部楼层
FEIFANXIE 发表于 2019-12-2 12:11
请问图片要怎么发,图片在word文档里面了

图片放在word文档里面的没法直接贴,需要单独上传后插入。上传图片时,使用论坛文字编辑面板上面的图片按钮,然后指定图片路径并上传。
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 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-4 23:11:15 | 显示全部楼层
monochromelody 发表于 2019-12-4 20:25
图片放在word文档里面的没法直接贴,需要单独上传后插入。上传图片时,使用论坛文字编辑面板上面的图片按 ...

我改好了
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 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-4 23:15:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 FEIFANXIE 于 2020-3-23 00:07 编辑

Barr & Stroud

After Grubb's work and the designs of other manufacturers had been studied, an experimental pilot's sight was produced. It consisted of a horizontal lens tube mounted under a rectangular Triplex reflector. Light from a bulb was directed through a circular pattern stamped out of a metal disc, and a collimated lens train to a prism, which turned the image 90 degrees up onto the reflector, which was fixed at 45 degrees to the pilot's eye line. A twin-filament bulb was used to vary the brightness.
The prototype sight, known as the Barr & Stroud GD1, was despatched to Martlesham Heath where it was tested on an Avro 504. The trials pilot reported that the graticule was not clear enough against white cloud, even with the smoked-glass sun screen in position, and the optics misted up after flying through cloud. The sight was completely redesigned in a new configuration, with the lamp at the base of an upright tube, the graticule being projected straight through the lenses onto the reflector screen, and heat from the lamp prevented misting. The lamp strength was increased, and a modified dimming screen was raised in position by a knurled knob. This design, the GD2B, received favourable comments from the trials unit in 1927. Work then started on a sight for free-mounted guns.
The ENI sight

In 1931 the German Oigee company produced another reflector sight, the ENI (Electrische Nivellier Instrument, or Electrical Levelling Instrument). Germany was forbidden to produce armaments at this time, so the company used this acronym to promote sales. Again, Lt. Col. Jacob West, the US Air Attache, sent an example to McCook Field, where it was tested by the 17th Pursuit Group on Boeing P-12F aircraft. As a result, the Armament Laboratory at Wright Field designed an American version, an L-shaped housing in which a central cross graticule was surrounded by eight small arrows to assist sighting. This was the forerunner of the American 'N' series used by the US forces for the next 20 years.
巴尔与斯特劳德
在对Grubb的工作和其他厂商的设计进行了研究后,一种实验性的航空瞄准镜被制造出来。它由矩形三层反射镜和位于其下方水平透镜管组成。来自电灯泡的光线直接穿过从金属圆盘冲压出来的圆形图案,然后经过准直的透镜组到达棱镜,棱镜将图像向上旋转90度到反射镜上,该反射镜与飞行员的视线成45度固定。使用双丝灯泡来改变亮度。
原型瞄准具被称为巴尔与斯特劳德GD1,被送往Martlesham Heath,测试在阿芙罗504上进行。试飞员报告说,即使将烟熏玻璃遮阳板放在适当的位置,面对白云的时候刻度分划仍不够清晰,并且在穿过云层后,光学系统会起雾。

随后瞄准具经过重新设计,采用了新的构造,其中的灯位于直立灯管的底部,刻度分划直接穿过透镜投射到反射镜上,并且灯的热量防止了雾化。增加了灯的亮度,并且可以通过滚花旋钮将改进的调光屏提高到位。GD2B这种设计在1927年得到了试验部队的好评。随后,人们开始着眼于自由活动枪炮的瞄准器。

ENI瞄准镜
1931年,德国Oigee公司生产了另一款反射镜瞄准器ENI( Electrische Nivellier Instrument, 或电气水准仪)。当时禁止德国生产军备,因此该公司使用该缩写以促进销售。再一次的,中校雅各布韦斯特,美国空军武官,把一个样品送到McCook Field。在那里,瞄准镜在第17驱逐机联队的波音Boeing P-12F型飞机上测试。结果,赖特菲尔德的武器实验室设计了一个美国版本, L形外壳的中央十字分划被八个小箭头包围以帮助瞄准。这是美军在未来20年使用的“ N”系列瞄准镜的先驱。

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-4 23:22:49 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-1-6 18:16:10 | 显示全部楼层
10号以后恢复更新
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发表于 2020-3-13 11:01:23 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享
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发表于 2020-3-13 11:01:38 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-22 23:41:40 | 显示全部楼层
完蛋,存稿丢失
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-4-4 15:16:23 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 FEIFANXIE 于 2020-4-4 15:28 编辑

The GD5

In 1934 a new Barr & Stroud sight was announced. The GD5 was a complete departure from previous designs. The sight consisted of a lens tube mounted in the centre of a 114 mm (4.5 in) bowl containing a parabolic mirror. The principle of the sight was to separate range-finding and the aiming graticule. The upright tube contained a collimating lens which projected a cross graticule. The parabolic mirror reflected a circular ranging ring which was adjustable to various diameters representing various wingspans. The system used a single bulb light source, and the images were projected up onto the pilot's windscreen. The ideal eye point was given as 419 mm (16.5 in) from the sight, giving an angular field of 7 degrees 40 and allowing eye movement of 25.4 mm (1 in) either side of the centre of the windscreen.
The GD5 was specifically designed for use in the new Hawker fighter, the Demon. The prototype was tested at Martlesham on the prototype demon by a pilot who made a rough landing and was struck in the face by the protruding sight. This was to be a common hazard with reflector sights. Thick rubber pads were later fitted to the rear of the housing, but the problem was never fully overcome.
Accuracy of the new sight left much to be desired, and it needed continual realignment. The main problem, was double imaging of the graticules, caused by the Triplex glass of the windscreen. It proved difficult to produce surfaces sufficiently parallel to avoid this fault. As the sight had been designed from the outset to use the windscreen as the reflector, it would have needed a complete redesign to adapt it to an integral reflector. Meanwhile, squadron Demons were fitted with the usual Aldis and ring sights.
Later in the year the company was asked to provide a reflector sight for the PV3, which was to be the last of the famous line of Hawker biplane fighters designed by Sydney Camm. The Barr & Stroud drawing for the new sight, the GD12, specified its use in the Hawker Hawk. It was virtually identical to the GD5. It would appear that the company, realising that a firm order would be unlikely, had submitted a design as requested, but also mentioned that a completely new pilot's sight was being developed which would be more robust and less complicated than the GD5 series.
在1934年,新型Barr & Stroud瞄准镜问世了。这就是GD5,GD5与以前的设计完全不同。瞄准镜由一个镜筒组成,该镜筒安装在一个114毫米(4.5英寸)的碗中,碗中装有一个抛物面镜。瞄准镜的原理是将测距和瞄准标线分开。竖管中装有准直透镜,投射一个十字分划。抛物面镜反射的测距圆环,圆环直径是可调的,代表不同的翼展。该系统使用单灯泡光源,图像被投影到飞行员的挡风玻璃上。距瞄准镜的理想眼点是419毫米(16.5英寸)角视场7度40分,同时允许眼睛离风挡玻璃中心运动范围是每边25.4毫米(1英寸)
GD5是专为新型霍克战斗机“恶魔”设计的,该原型机在位于Martlesham的恶魔原型机上进行了测试,试飞员的脸在一次硬着陆中被伸出的瞄准器击中了面部。这是使用反射式瞄准镜的常会遇到的危险。随后在瞄准镜外壳后部安装了厚橡胶垫,但是这个问题从未得到彻底解决。
新瞄准具的精确度尚待提高,且需不断调整。主要问题是由三层风挡玻璃引起的刻度重影。事实证明很难产生足够平行的表面来避免这种缺陷。由于瞄准镜从一开始就被设计为使用挡风玻璃作为反射镜,因此将需要进行彻底的重新设计以使其适应于一体的反射镜。
在此期间,恶魔战斗机中队只能配备Aldis瞄准具和环形瞄准具。
安装在SE.5a型飞机的风档中的Aldis瞄准具

同年晚些时候公司被要求为PV3飞机提供一种反射瞄准镜,这是Hawker公司著名的最后一种张线式双翼战斗机,由SydneyCamm设计。Barr &Stroud为新瞄准镜画了草图,GD12型,指定用于Hawker公司的Hawk飞机。新瞄准镜事实上和GD5型相同。这表明公司认为获得可靠的订单不太可能,只是按要求提交设计。但是,同时提到全新的航空瞄准镜已经在开发中,新产品更有用却不会比GD5型复杂。
The caption for the bottom sketch is: A Barr &Stroud drawing of the GD5 in position behind the windscreen.
底部标题是:从风挡玻璃后看到的Barr & Stroud GD5型效果草图
The above text and photos were taken from "British AircraftArmament Vol.2: Guns and Gunsights", by R Wallace Clarke.
以上的文字和图片来自《英国空军装备 1.2卷:武器和瞄准具》,Wallace Clarke 作。

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